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ENUM adalah singkatan dari Electronic Numbering atau tElephone NUmber Mapping, yaitu pemetaan nomer telepon ke alamat IP internet dengan menggunakan Domain Name System (DNS). Dengan ENUM, user dapat dihubungi dimana saja di seluruh dunia dengan nomer yang sama dan melalui jalan terbaik dan termurah. Prinsipnya adalah sama dengan pemetaan nama domain ke alamat IP dengan bantuan teknologi Session Initiation Protocol (SIP).

ENUM mengubah nomor telepon ke dalam identifikasi universal yang dapat digunakan pada banyak device dan aplikasi yang berbeda seperti voice, fax, mobile, email, instant messaging, video, layanan berbasis lokasi dan internet.

 


Sistem Penomoran

Nomor telepon, ketika masuk, akan ditranslate ke dalam alamat internet. Prosesnya kurang lebih adalah sebagai berikut:

  1. Nomor yang dimasukkan akan ditranslate ke dalam nomor lengkap E.164 (e.g. nomor 9777 1234 di Melbourne, Australia akan menjadi +61 3 9777 1234)
  2. Nomor akan dikurangi ke dalam bentuk digit saja (e.g. 61397771234)
  3. Digit diurut kembali dari belakang ke depan (e.g. 43217779316)
  4. Dot akan ditempatkan diantara masing-masing digit (e.g. 4.3.2.1.7.7.7.9.3.1.6)
  5. Domain e164.arpa akan ditambahkan di belakang (e.g. 4.3.2.1.7.7.7.9.3.1.6.e164.arpa)
  6. DNS query kemudian dikeluarkan pada domain ini.

Ketika name server yang berwenang ditemukan, ENUM menerima NAPTR Resource record yang relevan dan akan membangun layanan yang diinginkan user pada nomor tersebut.

Delegasi kode negara disesuaikan berdasarkan kode negara yang telah ditetapkan oleh ITU. Contohnya dengan root e164.arpa, akan menunjukkan:

  • NS listing .1.e164.arpa untuk North American Numbering Plan (US, Canada, dan beberapa negara Karibia)
  • NS listing .2.6.e164.arpa merepresentasikan kode negara 62 untuk Indonesia
  • NS listing .8.5.3.e164.arpa merepresentasikan kode negara 358 untuk Finlandia

Pada level nomor telepon/name server nasional, delegasi NS lebih lanjut (DNAME, CNAME, PTR) dapat dilakukan oleh perusahaan, service provider, carrier, dan juga individu yang memiliki DNS server di rumah mereka.

Sistem Kerja

Mekanisme penggunaan ENUM adalah ketika panggilan dibangun dari satu orang ke orang lain tidak terlihat secara virtual. Jika keduanya menggunakan IP phone, panggilan akan terlihat seperti koneksi PSTN regular. Penelepon akan menunjuk layanan nomornya yang digunakan, dan pihak yang ditelepon juga telah terspesifikasi layanan ENUM mana yang akan dibangun.

 

Gambar diatas mengilustrasikan bagaimana ENUM bekerja dengan mengambil contoh ketika Subscriber A memanggil Subscriber B.

  1. User agent dari terminal device ENUM (PBX/Gateway) mentranslate request nomor +34 98 765 4321 sesuai dengan aturan RFC 3761 ke dalam domain ENUM 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.4.3.e164.arpa
  2. Request akan dikirimkan ke DNS untuk dilakukan look-up terhadap ENUM domain 1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.4.3.e164.arpa
  3. Query menghasilkan form Naming Authority Pointer (NAPTR) record sesuai RFC 3403. Respon dari alamat ini dapat dijangkau pada internet menggunakan protokol VoIP dan SIP sesuai dengan RFC 3261.
  4. Aplikasi terminal sekarang set up communication link, dan panggilan kemudian di-routing via internet.

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